questions, here are a lot of
I just pulled a report for 6/24/06 to 6/30/06. I live in Essex, which is about 5 miles from Baltimore. The weather report at that time said we had 12 inches of rain in three days. My Weather Source report only shows 5.75 inches of rain. How can I get more accurate informaton for my area?
Weather Warehouse weather data comes from
multiple agencies of the US Government's National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), including the National Climatic Data
Center (NCDC) and the National Weather Service (NWS). Data from these
agencies is quality controlled at both at the NCDC end and at the
Weather Source end. The quality control process involves numerous error
checks and ensures you of the reliability in the data. While a 100%
perfection guarantee could never be made by Weather Source or the US
Government due to the complexity of the overall system, every effort is
made by both Weather Source and the US Government to provide the most
error-free product possible, and the quality of the data is generally
accepted as very reliable and trustworthy and THE most reliable data
available. Public and private industry throughout many sectors of the
economy, from financial, legal and insurance, to climate research, make
extensive use of, and rely on, the very same data that is available
here in the Weather Warehouse. Industry relies on this data; you too
can rest assured knowing that the data you've ordered will withstand
If you are comparing a weather event you witnessed in the past to some weather data purchased through the Weather Warehouse and "it doesn't look accurate", experience has shown is that chances are that the measurements were in fact made correctly and that the error in the data is non-existent. Perceived inaccuracies are most likely to occur with rainfall amounts, due to the nature of rainfall events. Very often, rainfall rates vary considerably over short distances within weather systems. This can result in large rather large differences in rainfall totals observed from location to location across a region (one side of town to the next, for example). This is most common with scattered summertime thunderstorms, but can also occur with more benign stratoform precipitation events due to differences in embedded convection rates.
What is most likely to be the cause of discrepancy between what you remember and the data you ordered is the fact that the data you ordered came from a location that in fact observed less rain than you did. While this may seem "inaccurate" at first glance, it is highly likely that further scrutiny of the data will show the data is accurate. In fact, there was probably less rain at that location because less rain fell there, while more rain fell somewhere else nearby.
In your case, you said you remember hearing that 12 inches of rain fell where you live - in Essex, MD. And then when the data you obtained through the Weather Warehouse didn't add up 12 inches, your concern was "My Weather Source report only shows 5.75 inches of rain. How can I get more accurate information for my area?"
To reiterate, data from Weather Source and the Weather Warehouse comes from trusted US Government Agencies, as explained above. In looking at data from the downtown Baltimore station you selected, I see it also rained on the 23rd - the weather station there reported 0.05" of rain. So it looks like the rainfall event may have actually started on June 23, 2006. In which case, is it possible the dates you remember for the event may differ from the actual event itself. Downtown Baltimore also reported 0.26" of rain falling on the 19th. Is it possible this may come into play as well? Anyway, looking at Baltimore Downtown from the 23rd though the 30th, the total to comes to 5.80".
So, indeed it is true. Downtown Baltimore did not see 12" of rainfall from this storm like you remember. I also looked at two other nearby stations to see how much rain fell elsewhere. The Baltimore Washington International Airport (BWI) reported a similar 5.97" of rainfall for the
event starting on the 23rd and ending only the 29th.
There was significantly more rainfall - closer to what you remember at other stations in the area, such as Cylburn (Baltimore). The total for the period June 23rd to the 30th was 10.9" - significantly more than the other two stations. And the total for the 20th to the 30th was 11.84", nearly the 12" of rainfall you mention. Perhaps this is the value you remember?
So by expanding the dates and locations of our search to nearby stations and our start date a few days earlier to the 20th instead of the 23rd, we are able to find the rainfall values you expected.
According to the NWS, the storm was started on the 23rd and lasted through the 27th and did quite a bit of damage (http://www.erh.noaa.gov/lwx/Storms/Strmdata/storm0606.pdf). However, as we saw, there was also significant rainfall a few days before and after this:
A weak cold front settled over the forecast area from June 23 until June 27. Waves of low pressure rode northeast along the front. Flow in the atmosphere was parallel to the boundary, producing several rounds of training echoes. As a result, double digit rainfall totals affected parts of the region through the five days. There were also several rounds of severe weather with damaging winds
and large hail during the period.
A slow-moving line of thunderstorms fired along a tropical moisture plume and dumped between 4 and 7 inches of rain in Washington DC, causing extensive urban flooding on June 25 and June 26. Washington National Airport recorded more than 10 inches of rain, with new daily records being set both Sunday and Monday. Numerous roadways were flooded and/or closed, including some major arteries like the Capital Beltway near the Woodrow Wilson Bridge due to a mudslide. The IRS Building, National Archives, Department of Justice, and Environmental Protection Agency buildings were closed for the beginning of the workweek. Extensive power outages across the region occurred during this event. Major disruption of transportation was experienced June 26 due to the flooding. MARC Commuter rail experienced disruptions, Virginia Railway Express commuter rail did not operate, and flooding in underground tunnels forced much of the Washington Metro rail to close. At one point, 4 feet of water was reported in the 9th Street tunnel in DC.
Rock Creek flooded, and threw several vehicles up against trees due to the fast flowing high flood waters. The National Park Service reported severe damages at Rock Creek Park at a level more severe than damages sustained during Hurricane Isabel in September, 2003. Severe erosion occurred along park roads and trails. Numerous trees were downed all around the park area. Many roads were closed for several days around the park.
This storm significantly contributed to June 2006 being the wettest ever in Washington DC. The monthly rainfall total reached 14.02 inches at Reagan National Airport, much of that from this late June heavy rainfall event.
I hope this helps to clarify any confusion with the weather data. Sometimes working with weather data is not as straightforward as we would like (quite often, in fact, it is not). But as meteorologists we hope try to take the confusion out and make sense of it all!
I am have filed a VA claim on my Kidney iinjury that I think
happened inthe week of Aug. 5-10 to cover the date and Im
difficulty fining out if the 6th of August of 1968 that there was
Tyhoon that happened on the Island of Okinawa to verify my
claim.Iwas Stationed on LST-1123 at the time that we brought
marines to your island.
Tropical Storm Polly grazed Okinawa in early
Tropical Storm Trix hit Okinawa in late August 1968
Typhoon Della slammed Okinawa in mid September 1968
Overall 1968 was a very busy year for tropical systems in that area and Okinawa was a frequent target.
Here is a link to the typhoon and tropical storms of 1968. Hope this helps.
I'm interested in annual state-level data on rainfall and other climate conditions for years 1900-1950 or so. Can you tell me if you data extends this far back, and if not, what other sources I might pursue?
Our data does extend that far back, consisting largely of data from the cooperative weather stations that existed in the US during that period ND that have been digitized by the US government (NCDC to be specific). Assuming we have suitable data, we could aggregate the data into astate-by-state product.
We are looking to purchase a report that shows temperature and humidity averages for the last 5 years in Arizona, and Minnesota.
There are approx. 116 weather stations in MN that have temperature and humidity and 46 locations in AZ. We could provide temperature and humidity for each of these locations separately, or we could aggregate them into a state-wide average. Whatever you need. We also have daily min and max values, and we have hourly values. We could also provide monthly values. Whatever you need.
I'm looking specifically for a 100 year return period annual statistic for Precipitation in a specific location: Newcastle, California (North of Sacramento). I have only been able to locate minimal Data from Newcastle Pineview School (NCS). Does your database offer such information?
We can provide this to you through our consulting services. We routinely produce return period reports for clients and they generally cost between $300 and $500 dollars. Usually precipitation return periods are closer to the $300 fee.
I just bought data for the amount of rainfall in a certain period of time. Does PrecipIn mean that the rain is measured in inches and how do you convert to millimeters? This is for a school project.
'PrecipIn' means "precipitation measured in inches". To convert from
inches to mm, multiply the inches value by 25.4 or try these conversion
Type "1 inch to mm" into a Google Search
I am desperately trying to find the temperatures high and low for Lebanon, Oregon for November 12, 2005
Weather Source probably (outside the Govt) has the largest archive of official reporting stations. We show the following stations reporting temperature for that day in that area:
Lacomb 3 Nne, OR 97374 (Linn
Foster Dam, OR 97386 (Linn County)
Stayton, OR 97325 (Marion County)
Corvallis State Univ, OR 97330 (Benton County)
Corvallis Municipal Airport, OR 97333 (Benton County)
You can purchase information by going to our Weather Warehouse at: http://weather-warehouse.com.
Can you provide a report, on an hour by hour basis, of
rainfall in Orlando Florida (Universal Studios area) for August 7, 2005?
We have a few hourly stations near that
area. For example:
Orlando International Airport, FL 32827 (Orange County)
Orlando Executive Airport, FL 32803 (Orange County)
Note that rainfall can be isolated in nature such that rainfall from a storm at one of these locations could be quite different from that at Universal, several miles away. Anyway, assuming the data is adequate from one of these stations, we could provide this to you.
a writer trying to research a few things for a screenplay
the days leading up to and during Hurricane Katrina.
receive information about the weather for the week of
Aug. 22nd-29th, 2005 in New Orleans, please?
Warehouse records support both daily and hourly observations
fromthe National Weather Service.
With hourlies you get the weather observations (if any) such as heavy rain, moderate rain, lightning, thunderstorm, etc.
Be aware that weather observations are made by real people and a since the period you are requesting is that for Hurricaine Katrina, a lot of those people left town. Also some of those stations likely shut down completely so data can be missing. The Data Map on our station selection page will let you know what is and is not available. Assume that if an hour is completely missing, you're not going to get any observations, and we wonder how many people did stick around just to record that.
I work for a civil engineering firm in Albuquerque, New Mexico. We require, for one of our projects, the daily precipitation for Albuquerque from January 1, 1995 to September 1, 2006. Before I purchase the information from this website, I would like to make sure that the information I need will be included. Would you please respond and let me know what I will see on the report that is generated.
The Albuquerque Airport Weather Station has
Our daily data for this station includes (when reported):
Heating and Cooling Degree Days (HDD & CDD)
The hourly data includes:
Wind speed and direction
Significant weather indicators
What do your records report?
We obtain all our information from official U.S. Government sources. We report what they do. Keep in mind that some weather stations do not report all things. For example some may only report precipitation, but no temperature. By providing all stations we give you the ability to pick and choose what best suits your needs in terms of information and proximity to the place you are looking for. Our "DataMap" and other information on the station selection page will show you what is available prior to purchase.
Do you have detailed weather info for developing countries in the tropical area like India, Thailand, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, etc?
We sure do. Depending on the city, we have detailed hourly information for many developing countries, although it's not quite as reliable developed countries.
I am writing a report about Christmas in Virginia in 1927 and
need to know what the weather was at that time of the year?
Our Weather Warehouse at http://weather-warehouse.com has records going back to 1900.
Good morning! I am a student @Fresno State university, Fresno, Cal. I am doing a research paper on the heat wave of Europe(Italy/France) and also in the U.S,--California, Arizona in 2005. I am looking for the period the heat waves lasted, and the prevailing meteorological conditions prior/during these days . As a nurse, I can assess and write about the deaths and the reasons for these tragic happenings. I need this class for continuing my degree, it's very fascinating, yet problematic as to finding research resources. Perhaps you can help with info on web sites, or flat out specifics!!! hahahahah In any case, thanks for anything you can provide. Much appreciated!!
thinking about your research problem, my first thought is that you will
need data showing how anomalous the temperature (or even better, heat
index) was during the heat waves. To do this the "normal" temperatures
need to be calculated, then the departures from normal must be
determined. Finally the departures from normal should be ranked to
identify the historical significance of the heat wave events. I believe
if we were to provide you with time-series of daily temperature, you
would have the means to compute and rank the anomalies as described
Lastly, as alternative or additional resources, I recommend you try contacting:
Climate Prediction Center (CPC) (http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/)
National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html)
International Research Institute (IRI) (http://iri.columbia.edu/)
I am looking for rainfall information for the Lake Huntington
New York State, a small town in Sullivan County, going back for at
least the past 30 years. Those of us who are members of a summer
cooperative have had increasing problems with wet grounds compared with
30 years ago. To treat the problem effectively, we are looking into a
number of possible causes ranging from rainfall to soil erosion, etc.
Can you tell me if you can provide the data that we are looking for?
Surrounding towns are Cochecton, Cochecton Center, Fosterdale,
Jeffersonville, Narrowsburg, etc. Thank you.
We have a large number of stations reporting
precipitation in that area online at our Weather Warehouse
You can enter a city and state, or zip code. Lake Huntingon, NY will return results. You can get daily totals using our DAILY product (hourly purchases are currently restricted online to 5 years, but we can look into it if you are interested). My quick look at it shows that a lot of the stations in that area have a good deal of precip information. Let us know if there is anything else we can do for you. We also have staff meteorologists who can provide extensive support on a consulting basis.
How can I get a report closer to my home? I did not understand how to use the map and I choose nj, trenton airport. I am about 10 miles from there. I really need this info. I had trees planted in april and I know it rained lots and lots.
there aren't weather stations on every corner and in your case it does
look like the Trenton Airport is the closest official recording station
to your home (which I assume is in Hamilton, per your credit card
order). So from an official reporting station standpoint (as
opposed to somebody's backyard rain gauge), since we report ALL
official stations, I assume nobody is going to be able to give you any
Now we can actually go back and look at radars and other sorts of things for those days to see what was going on in your exact area and make some very educated guesses, however that is done on a consulting basis.
I am looking for:
1. Average daily wind speed from Burlington International Airport for the last 30 years.
2. Average hourly wind speed from Burlington International Airport for the last 30 years.
We can certainly help you with that. This is done on a consulting basis.
We are interested in daily rainfall totals for a period this past summer. Our attorney will use it in a court case. Is there any notation in the data that indicates that you are the source of the information? We are concerned about making sure it does not appear that we just created a file showing rainfall data - we want the data to have the credibility that coming from you will provide.
We can provide you a declaration from our company as to how the data is obtained, what we do with it and how we provide it. Also, our meteorologists, when needed, do appear as expert witnesses in court proceedings.
Looking for any hail that might have fallen during our trip from El Paso, Texas to Dallas, Texas from November 22, 06 thru November 27, 06.
Weather Source routinely
conducts hail investigations. In our experience finding evidence of
hail is occasionally simple (such as when it occurs within range of a
weather station such that it can be documented), but more often finding
proof of hail requires significant effort including doing a detailed
analysis of radar information.
We can begin a search on a consulting basis, which usually takes about one-half hour. If direct hail information can be found within this time, then you are one of the lucky ones. On the other hand if direct hail information can not be found, the meteorologist will recommend a solution for you to consider.
I need weather information for the Worcester Massachusetts area from December-01-2006 - December-25-2006 for lightening ruined my property somewhere around dec-20th I need confirmation of when this was.
Our hourly does contain
lightning reports and other weather parameters related to
lightning. I have reviewed this data for the Worchester area
12/19-21/2006 and there is no sign of lightning. Of course there a
(slim) possibility that lightning occurred, but was not pickup by the
weather observing network.
Vaisala is a commercial lightning detection network that captures many more lightning strikes than the US weather network.
I need a somewhat unique cut of your data - basically I need the last week of April and first week of May & the last week of September and first week of October for as far back as you have good data for the zip code 66111. I think the Kansas City International Airport and Downtown airport are the closest weather stations with relatively complete data sets. I am trying to show (based on historical data) the probability of rain during a race day at Kansas Speedway. Please contact me as soon as possible - I don't think your online tool will work very well for what I need.
We have a query that can target specific ranges of the days of the year. For example April 24 is the 114th day of the year and May 7th is the 127 days of theyear (not counting leap years), and we could pull the data for this period in fairly quick order and is done on a consulting basis.
Please contact us regarding if you have the capability of text messaging the weather to a cell phone.
this time, no we do not. Weather Source's key strength is in providing
historical and real-time weather observations online. Most of our
clients either need to prove facts about weather in the past, or
quantify weather statistics for various business needs.
We are also developing precise location specific weather forecasts with our partner Weather Analytics.
I purchased a Weather report on January 19, 2007. Our firm is going to utilize this at a Small Claim's trial on January 25, 2007. It was brought to my attention that I need a certification along with this report. How can I obtain a certification that the information contained within is accurate?
The Weather Warehouse
report is a quick, convenient and inexpensive way to obtain weather
information and evaluate it's utility in supporting legal cases. While
the Weather Warehouse data is exactly the same as the US Government
certified data, only the US National
can provide you with certified data that can be admitted as evidence in
most courts. Most laws firms use the Weather Warehouse to research
which weather stations best support their case, then they either order
the targeted certified data directly through NCDC, or order it through
Weather Source will obtain NCDC certified data for you if you don't want to be bothered with learning the process of ordering certified data through NCDC. In most cases, the cost for Weather Source to order certified data on your behalf is $150 - $250 depending on the amount of certified data need.
For completeness, the other way to have weather information admitted as evidence is to have a meteorologist testify positively on the accuracy and validity of relevant weather information. This of course is more expensive, but in cases where NCDC data in not capable of communicating the weather condition accurately, expert testimony is often the only way to get the needed weather information entered as evidence. Weather Source does provide forensic weather research services, reports and expert weather testimony if you think you need it.
I need to find out how many hours annually, (average year) are below 45 degrees Fahrenheit wet bulb and how many hours below 50 degrees Faharenheit wetbulb in Katy, Texas and if Katy is not avalible, Houston, Tx is my second choice.
On a consulting basis, Weather Source can provide you a Wet Bulb Frequency Analysis. We provide a sample on request.
I am doing research on flour quality related to 2006 wheat harvest. I would like to have average High temp, low temp, highest temp, lowest temp, average precipitation for the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Iowa and Wisconsin for the months starting March 2006 to November 2006.
The quickest, least expensive way would be for you to research the best stations using our Weather Warehouse search tool and provide us with a list of groups of weather stations you would like to have represent each district. We can then, on a consulting basis, use that list and our weather database to compute the historical averages for each district
I am trying to help my parents with a lawsuit regarding flooding on their property. On July 25, 2006, there was a major rainfull, and their front yard was washed away. It is a new home. But your weather report for Fountain Hills shows NO rainfall - even though there was a LOT of rain that day. What gives? How accurate are your reports???? I paid for this report, and the date I was most interested in shows no rain.
I believe there are two things going on here
making the determination of rain difficult.
First, I have checked our radar records for that day and they show that there was significant precipitation in that area on July 25th & 26th, 2006, but that it was scattered such that not all areas receive the same amount. Some locations received a significant amount while others received almost nothing.
Secondly, the Scottsdale Airport shows the precipitation started at 9pm on the 25th and continued till 4am on the 26th, and that the majority of the heavy precip occurred after midnight. This fact combined with the fact that the station you ordered takes their daily measurements at 7am, means the Fountain hills station would have recorded precipitation on the 26th and none for the 25th.
One thing you need to keep in mind as your looking at the daily data is, in general airport stations report daily precipitation on a midnight to midnight schedule, while most other stations report on a 7am to 7am schedule. Thus for precipitation occurring after 7am on the 25th, many stations will record this precip on the 26th. (I don't make the rules, so don't shoot the messenger).
I would like the date of the start of the monsoon in 2006. Also, when the humidity was too high for the evaporative coolers to be effective in 2006.
most inexpensive option would be to obtain weather information for a
city or cites in the southwest monsoon region and analyze this data to
get the information you seek. Alternatively we could do this research
Our hourly data on the Weather Warehouse has temperature, dewpoint and relative humidity (among other weather parameters). Relative Humidity alone won't help you as it can be high even when the temperatures are cool/cold. That said I recommend you use dewpoint as a reference. I'm not exactly sure what dewpoint value you should use as a threshold as I'm not an HVAC expert. That said, I can tell you that when the dewpoint gets above 70 degrees, most people consider that to be unbearably hot and humid.
In the HVAC industry the weather parameter they use most often is called Wet Bulb Temperature. Without going in to all the science, Wet Bulb Temperature is usually between the air temperature and the dewpoint. We do have Wet Bulb Temperature in our database, but it is not offer on the Weather Warehouse site at this time, as 99% of people never need it. If you think you need Wet Bulb Temperature, this could be purchased from Weather Source directly. Our consulting fees would depend on how many cities and what length of time you would need.
I need to know what Tropical storms and Hurricanes affected Miami, Fl, from 7/28/04-7/28/05.
We suggest you checkthe National Hurricane
I have some questions, can you explian about the return period, what does it mean by 10, 20, 50, 100-year return period. Do you use a model for prediction. We will be putting an oil and gas structure offshore,and there are certian weather criterias that we have to meet.
Weather Source does provide return period
frequency analysis and modeling on a consulting basis. To answer your
question, a return period is the average time period between events of
a given definition. For example, an event could be defined as the
occurrence of a wind speed of 60 knots and through analysis and
modeling using historical wind speed data, it may be determined that on
average, a wind speed of 60 knots occurs once every 10 years.
Keep in mind the term 'return period' is an AVERAGE return period. Using the above example, over a period of 100 years we would expect a total of 10
occurrences where the wind speed was 60 knots, but these 10 occurrences would be randomly distributed within the 100 years such that there could be long periods with no 60 knots winds, and relatively short periods where many 60 knot winds occurred.
If enough historical data are available one can determine return periods directly from the data, however this is rare. Most of the time a return period analyst will need to use relatively short time-series (hopefully 25 years of more) and Extreme Value Theory models in order to determine the returns periods.
I need to order numerous separate days (about 20 different days of hourly records) of weather history. Can I set up an account using my credit card or must I order each day separately?
Yes, we can certainly set you up with an account. In order to do so, you will need provide us with a credit card to put on file and then notify when you are done and we'll settle your account. You'll receive an invoice with each individual order, and then when you are all done, you will receive a final receipt/invoice with the total credit card charge.We can usually have your account ready in an hour or two during business hours
I need hourly weather data regarding winds and precipitation for the past five years for a site in Japan and a site in Italy. Your website says something about being able to access international weather data, but does not mention which specific sites are available or what kind of data is available. Do you have a product with this type of data?
We do maintain international data in our database, but we do not offer it online at this time. We can provide this to you on a consulting basis.
I am representing the engineering class and we have a new design model for the flood control pumps of the New Orleans area. We need weather data (specifically rainfall) for the New Orleans area to run simulation test. The data required would be hourly rainfall rates spanning the hurricane season. Let us know if you can provide a free license to access the needed information for the sole purpose of simulation testing and would not be redistributed in any way, shape, or form.
While we can't provide data for free, we do offer educational discounts via our accounts. Contact us for more information.
am interested in precipitation (preferably hourly) and min/max
temperature for areas near Peterborough, NH. I see on your website that
Concord, NH has the highest level of 'data density' for the period I
need (1993-2008). I have also queried the NOAA Online Climatic Data
Database for neighboring weather stations. I see that in general your
'data densities' seem to be higher than what appears to be available
directly from NOAA.
My question is: How are your data different from the data that I can download for free from NOAA? (I have an .edu address, so NOAA is free.) I am willing to purchase data from your site if there are fewer missing data values, but obviously I don't want to purchase data that I can just get for free.
For example, using your 'data map' I see that most of the precip hours from Concord, NH show being 'reported', but I know from some of the data I've downloaded from NOAA that they will report a 0.0 for precip and then report a 'flag' that indicates that there wasn't actually any data recorded. Is there a way to know before I purchase if a green cell on the data map represents a real report of precip vs. an entry of 0.0 indicating in fact 'no data recorded'.
Our data is more complete is
because of our methodology of integrating multiple datasets to create
the most complete set possible. I suspect the NOAA data set you are
looking at is a single dataset. In the case of Concord, NH, this is a
major climate observing station, so it has the benefit of availability
of many different datasets. For the *DAILY* data, these include the NWS
daily climate report for the most recent 3 months (July 1 to present).
Prior to that, preliminary cooperative data is utilized (June) and then
prior to that, finalized cooperative data comprises the rest of the
data. Because of the multiple "layer" approach of our data filling, if
there is a gap in one of the sets, then one of the other layers often
fills the gap.
I don't believe NOAA utilizes any such multiple dataset methodology. If true, that might explain the difference you are seeing and why our data is more complete.
For the *HOURLY* data, again we utilize multiple datasets resulting in the most complete set possible. This includes real-time routine meteorological aviation (METARs) and synoptic reports.
Regarding the zero precipitation issue you mention, yes, occasionally some of the smaller unmanned, low-budget airfields do have the zero-precipitation issue you refer to. I don't expect that to be an issue here with Concord, NH since that is a major climate station with plenty of funding. In fact I have just looked at the data and I see no problem.
The Customer later replied:
Thank you very much for your prompt and thorough reply to my inquiry. Your data product seems to be of superior quality and solves my problems of trying to do the work of integrating multiple data sources each with varying levels of large numbers of missing values. So, basically -- it is very much worth the price!!
How often do weather stations report?
Generally speaking, stations report every
day, but some
stations do not get into the system, sometimes for months, for example
so-called COOP stations where real humans may fill out forms and send
them in to the government. Automated stations are most likely
be completely up-to-date, but, in fact, some automated stations don't
report all information (airports can be notorious for NOT reporting
And then SOME stations just stop altogether.... (Or move elsewhere.)
Do you have a manual for the Weather Explorer?
Yes! Find it here.